Over more than 25 years, Citrefine has undertaken a large number of efficacy studies. Summaries of a selection of these studies for mosquitoes, ticks and midges are available here with further information available on request. You will also find additional study references and references for published materials.

We are always eager to improve our understanding of the repellency properties of Citriodiol® so if you decide to conduct efficacy testing of your own, we would welcome the opportunity to review your results and can even comment on proposed study protocols to ensure you get the most out of your testing.


Carroll (2007)

Species: Aedes, Anopheles, Culex

Results: The 30% Citriodiol® spray formulation provided up to 8.25 hours of complete protection (CPT), a standard measuring 100% protection / repellency.

Blackwell (2013)

Species: Stegomyia (formerly Aedes)

Results: 360 minutes of CPT, significantly greater than the CPT for the other spray products tested, and 70% repellency was maintained to 6 hours.

Martínez de Murguia (2018)

Species: Aedes albopictus (Stegomyia albopicta)

Results: The 30% Citriodiol® spray formulation provided 8 hours of complete protection (CPT) and 95% repellency was maintained to 10 hours.



Blackwell (2013)

Species: Culicoides spp. biting midges

Results: Complete protection for 2 hours and a mean 65% protection at 4 hours.


Carroll (2002)

Species: Ixodes

Results: 95% repellency for the lotion over the 6hrs and 100% repellency for the spray for the first 4 hours, dropping to 95% for the remaining 2hrs.

Weisser (2002)

Species: Ixodes

Results: On average 90% of Ixodes ricinus were actively repelled.



Insect Services GmbH (2020)

Species: Ctenocephalides felis (cat flea)

Results: 100% repellency .


Deer keds (Field Study) – Hagstrom (2005)

Leptoconops Biting Midges (Field Study) – Carroll (2001)

Aedes mosquitoes (Field Study) – Barnard (2000)

Aedes, Anopheles & Culex mosquitoes (Lab Study) – Barnard (2000)

Deer tick (Lab Study) – Carroll (1999)


A recent independent study by US Consumer Reports testing the Citriodiol®-based product Repel® Lemon Eucalyptus found such 30% formulations on par with DEET at between 7 and 8 hours of efficacy against Aedes and Culex mosquitoes and deer ticks.


  • Drapeau, J. (2011), Green synthesis of para-Menthane-3,8-diol from Eucalyptus citriodora: Application for repellent products, C.R. Chimie 14 (2011) 629-635.
  • Semmler, M. (2011), Why is it crucial to test anti-lice repellents?, Parasitol Res, DOI 10.1007/s00436-011-2483-4.
  • Carroll SP, Loye J (2006), Field Test of a Lemon Eucalyptus Repellent against Leptoconops Biting Midges, J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2006 Sep;22(3), 483-485.
  • Carroll SP, Loye J (2006), PMD, a registered botanical mosquito repellent with deet-like efficacy, J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2006 Sep;22(3), 507-14.
  • Trongtokit Y, Curtis CF and Rongsriyam (2005), Efficacy of repellent products against caged and free flying Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes, Southeast Asian Journal of tropical medicine and public health, 2005, 36(6), 1423-1431.
  • Kirton, L.G. (2005), Laboratory and field tests of the effectiveness of the lemon-eucalyptus extract, Citriodiol, as a repellent against land leeches of the genus Haemadipsa (Haemadipsidae), Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 2005, 99(7), 695-714.
  • Barnard DR, Xue RD (2004), Laboratory evaluation of mosquito repellents against Aedes albopictus, Culex nigripalpus, and Ochierotatus triseriatus (Diptera: Culicidae), Journal of Medical Entomology, 2004, 41(4), 726-730.
  • Ann Gardulf; Ingrid Wohlfart; Rolf Gustafson (2004), A Prospective Cross-Over Field Trial Shows Protection of Lemon Eucalyptus Extract Against Tick Bites, Journal of Medical Entomology, 2004, 41(6), 1064-1067.
  • Trigg J K and Hill, N (1996), Laboratory evaluation of a Eucalyptus-based repellent against four biting arthropods, Phytotherapy Research. 1996. 10: 313-316.
  • Maria M. Miro Specos, Juan J. Garcia, Alejandra C. Gutierrez & Laura G. Hermida (2017) Application of microencapsulated biopesticides to improve repellent finishing of cotton fabrics, The Journal of The Textile Institute, 108:8, 1454-1460, https://doi.org/10.1080/00405000.2016.1257345.
  • Rodriguez, S., et. al.  (2017), Efficacy of SomeWearable Devices Compared with Spray-On Insect Repellents for the Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae), Journal of Insect Science (2017) 17(1): 24; 1–6; DOI: 10.1093/jisesa/iew117
  • Rodriguez, S., et. al.  (2015), The Efficacy of Some Commercially Available Insect Repellents for Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae), Journal of Insect Science (2015) 15(1): 140; DOI: 10.1093/jisesa/iev125
  • Qualls, W. et. al.  (2011), Field Evaluation of Commercial Repellents Against the Floodwater Mosquito Psorophora columbiae (Diptera: Culicidae) in St. Johns County, Florida, ; Qualls, et. al., J. Med. Entomol. 48(6): 1247Ð1249 (2011); DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/ME11072.

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