3_EC Leaf close up 1-01.jpeg
citrefine-citriodiol-95579395.jpg
citrefine-citriodiol-64445805.jpg
citrefine-citriodiol-48594688.jpg
citrefine-citriodiol-66066713.jpg
DSCF1761-01.jpeg
DSCF1769-01.jpeg
3_EC Leaf close up 1-01.jpeg

What is Citriodiol?


Citriodiol®

Nature's most effective insect repellent

SCROLL DOWN

What is Citriodiol?


Citriodiol®

Nature's most effective insect repellent

Nature's repellent, backed by science - Citriodiol® is produced from Eucalyptus citriodora oil by accelerating the oil's ageing process that naturally occurs in the leaf

 
 
Citrefine citriodiol Eucalyptus Citriodora leaf
 
 

Citriodiol® is nature's most effective insect repellent. It is a naturally sourced active ingredient that is effective against a range of biting insects, nuisance insects and ticks. It is derived from the oil of the Eucalyptus citriodora tree (also known as Corymbia citriodora), which is a natural and renewable resource grown in several parts of the world.

Citriodiol® is produced from steam distilled Eucalyptus citriodora oil using a process that mimics and accelerates the ageing process which naturally occurs in the leaf, by converting the citronellal content into p-menthane-3,8-diol (PMD). PMD itself is usually only present at very low levels in natural essential oils, rarely more than 1% or 2 %. This conversion process to increase the PMD content makes Citriodiol® a far more powerful repellent than the natural essential oil itself.

PMD has long been known as the active compound responsible for the repellent effect, and it is the high levels of PMD in Citriodiol® which provide its efficacy. Citriodiol® contains a minimum of 64% PMD (a mixture of the cis and trans isomers of p-menthane-3,8-diol) together with a number of minor constituents found in essential oil which enhance the efficacy further.

Citriodiol® has been notified under the European Biocidal Products Directive (BPD) 98/8/EC and is in the final stages of evaluation under the European Union’s Biocidal Products Regulation (BPR).

Unlike other essential oil based products, Citriodiol® has passed the most rigorous safety and efficacy tests. For example, it has met the highest standards obtaining unconditional registration from the following agencies

It is often thought that insect repellents are similar to cosmetic products, such as moisturisers or face creams, in terms of the tests they have to pass to be brought to market. In fact, the tests required for insect repellents are generally much more stringent. For example, insect repellents must often pass comprehensive human health (and sometimes environmental) risk assessments by the relevant authorities, neither of which tend to be required for cosmetics.

In many countries insect repellents are classed as biocides, such as in the European Union where they are evaluated alongside insecticides under the BPR.

 

Understand the EU Biocidal Products Regulation and the inclusion of Citriodiol® 

 

Let's explore working together
GET IN TOUCH →

Read next
WHY CHOOSE CITRIODIOL® ↓

citrefine-citriodiol-95579395.jpg

Why choose Citriodiol?


Features and benefits

Why choose Citriodiol®?

Why choose Citriodiol?


Features and benefits

Why choose Citriodiol®?

It is the only naturally sourced active ingredient registered for use in the USA by the EPA, and listed by the US CDC to prevent bites from mosquitoes carrying the Zika virus

 
 
Citrefine Citriodiol mosquito repellent
  • It works – despite historical misconceptions that naturally sourced insect repellents do not work, there are more than 40 studies carried out in multiple countries to prove otherwise. Furthermore, leading authorities worldwide support its efficacy against mosquitoes, ticks, midges and more. The US CDC (Centers for Disease Control and prevention) lists Citriodiol® as the only naturally sourced active ingredient to prevent bites from mosquitoes carrying the Zika virus
  • Click here for a summary of what insects Citriodiol® repels
  • Click here to read relevant reports and studies about the efficacy of Citriodiol® 
  • It is made from sustainably sourced, ethically produced eucalyptus citriodora oil. Click here to learn more about our green sourcing and production
  • It is great for all the family and our substantial dataset supports this
  • It is registered in many countries including the USA (where it is known as Oil of Lemon Eucalyptus or OLE), Canada and Australia, and it is in the final stages of evaluation under the European Union’s Biocidal Products Regulation (BPR)
  • This means you will be able to launch a product which meets the growing desire for ethical, sustainably sourced and environmentally friendly products. Backed by leading global authorities and vast data to support its efficacy, consumers will love Citriodiol®-based products because they work, making your route to market as smooth as possible
 
 

Features and benefits of Citriodiol®

 
 
 
 
 

Learn more about what insects Citriodiol® protects against, and what diseases they cause

 
citrefine-citriodiol-64445805.jpg

Safety for the consumer and the environment


The data

Safety for the consumer and the environment

Safety for the consumer and the environment


The data

Safety for the consumer and the environment

We have undertaken numerous field and laboratory trials to test the effect of Citriodiol® on an array of insects.

 
 
Citrefine Citriodiol backed by science

Leading authorities worldwide now recognise Citriodiol’s first-rate efficacy, making it the only plant-based repellent with this level of global accreditation. There is also a substantial body of data supporting its safety for use on human skin and in particular on young children and babies.

The toxicity profile of Citriodiol® extends to areas beyond acute toxicity assessment.  For example, it has no phototoxic potential, is non-mutagenic, passes the chromosome aberration test, is negative for inducing forward mutations at the TK locus in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells, and is negative in the in-vivo mouse micronucleus assay. In longer-term sub chronic and chronic studies, it is shown to have no adverse reproductive or dermal developmental effect.  

In addition to the many toxicological studies done on Citriodiol® to ensure product safety for consumers, Citrefine has also conducted environmental testing to ensure that its products are not harmful to the environment. These tests have proven that Citriodiol® is readily biodegradable, so will not build up to potentially harmful levels in our soils and waterways, unlike many synthetic alternatives such as DEET. Because Citriodiol® is sourced from natural plant oil and is readily biodegradable it is also not toxic to birds, honey bees and other insects beneficial to the environment.

Phys/chem data including stability data is being generated on our product formulations where data gaps exist.  A validated method to extract and measure the amount of PMD has been successfully developed for these products and they have proved to be stable in 2-week accelerated stability testing at 54°C.  

We are keen to understand and promote the repellence properties of Citriodiol® so if you decide to conduct efficacy testing of your own, we would welcome the opportunity to review your results or even to comment on the proposed study protocol in advance.

 
 

Read summaries of our efficacy data and find links to other studies and reports

 

Let's explore working together
GET IN TOUCH →

Read next
WHAT ELSE DO I NEED TO KNOW ↓

citrefine-citriodiol-48594688.jpg

What else do I need to know?


Just to be clear

What else do I need to know?

What else do I need to know?


Just to be clear

What else do I need to know?

Citriodiol® is known by other names in different countries

 
 
Citrefine Citriodiol insect repellent
  • Citriodiol® is available to all those that require a naturally sourced active ingredient for an insect repellent product
  • Citriodiol®’s main constituent is p-menthane-3,8-diol or PMD, which is naturally present in eucalyptus citriodora oil, but its levels are increased by our production process
  • Citriodiol® goes by many other names. The most common ones, and the respective countries where they are used, are listed below:
    • Oil of lemon Eucalyptus (OLE) – USA (EPA & CDC)
    • p-menthane-3,8-diol and related oil of lemon eucalyptus compounds – Canada (PMRA)
    • Oil of Lemon Eucalyptus (hydrated, cyclized) – Australia (APVMA)
    • Eucalyptus citriodora oil, hydrated, cyclized (abbreviated for informal use as EC Oil (H/C)) - European Union
  • The characteristics of Citriodiol® - at room temperature it is a yellow liquid containing white crystals. When heated to 55°C to 60°C the crystals will melt to become homogeneous, and will be a yellow liquid. It has a strong lemon scent.

 
 

Learn more about Citriodiol® and the type of information people want to know

 

Let's explore working together
GET IN TOUCH →

Read next
SUSTAINABLE, ETHICAL PRODUCTION ↓

citrefine-citriodiol-66066713.jpg

sustainable, ethical production


Where does the oil come from?

Sustainable, ethical production

sustainable, ethical production


Where does the oil come from?

Sustainable, ethical production

Essential oil production is an inherently green business, as the health and vitality of the soil and trees themselves play a vital role in the quality of oil produced

 
 
Citrefine citriodiol tree and soil health

Steam distillation is used to extract the oil, which is an age old process using only the leaves and twigs of the trees, without harvesting the entire tree. These coppiced trees continue to grow thus becoming self-sustaining and using more carbon dioxide and producing more oxygen for the benefit of the greater environment.

Growing the trees

  • Eucalyptus citriodora trees are generally grown on small plantations.
  • Seedlings are planted and tended by hand by local workers.
  • No synthetic fertilizers are used; the soil is simply conditioned with lime on planting and every couple of years thereafter to ensure it provides the best possible conditions for growth.
  • Waste leaf from the distillation process is used to improve the soil and to help to retain moisture.
  • Weeds are often controlled by running cattle in the plantation - which also fertilises the soil.
  • The trees and oil are not genetically modified.

Harvesting the leaves and managing the trees

  • Leaves and branches are harvested by hand from the trees by teams of local workers including both men and women.
  • Branches are cut selectively from each tree during the harvesting process so that the trees can continue to grow and produce new leaves for many years.
  • Once the branches have been harvested, the twigs containing leaves are cut from the branches. The leaves and small twigs are steam distilled to produce Eucalyptus citriodora oil.
  • The number of harvests each year is adjusted to ensure the on-going health of the trees.
  • Once or twice during the 10-15 year life span of each tree, it will be cut to a stump and allowed to regrow.
  • At the end of its life it will be cut down and a new line of trees will be planted adjacent.
  • The trees which are cut down are used as fuel either on the plantation, specially treated for use as poles or sold to local businesses.

Distilling the oil

  • Leaves are placed in a large vessel, compressed and then the vessel is sealed
  • Steam is passed through the vessel to distil the oil from the leaves. As the steam cools the water and oil separate and the oil is captured in drums.
  • A closed water system is used in which steam, passing through the leaves, distils the oil, condenses, and is re-used once the heat has been extracted from it.
  • Waste leaves (known as bagasse) and/or surplus twigs are used as fuel to fire the boiler which produces the steam and the bagasse is used to maintain the soil.
  • No other fuel is required to run the boiler and in fact excess energy generated by the process may be used to run other equipment on the plantation.

The employees

  • Workers on the plantations are nearly all local.
  • Plantations provide good, stable jobs for both men and women and are important to the local economy.
 
 

Learn more about who we are and our background in the insect repellent market

 

Let's explore working together
GET IN TOUCH →

Read next
MIMICKING NATURE'S AGEING PROCESS  ↓

DSCF1761-01.jpeg

Mimicking nature's ageing process


Making Citriodiol®

Mimicking nature’s ageing process

Mimicking nature's ageing process


Making Citriodiol®

Mimicking nature’s ageing process

We convert the high citronellal content in the essential oil into the naturally occurring substance PMD (p-menthane-3,8-diol)

 
 
P-menthane-3,8-diol_(PMD).png
  • In nature, as the oil found in the leaves of the Eucalyptus citriodora tree ages, the main constituent of the oil (citronellal) gradually turns into PMD (p-menthane-3,8-diol). 
  • Some PMD is found in the “young” oil, but only in small amounts. Because it is more difficult to distil the oil when it is more mature and because the PMD is central to the efficacy in repelling biting insects, Citrefine’s suppliers harvest the oil from leaves that are about 12-18 months old.
  • This oil is supplied to Citrefine who use a simple manufacturing process to convert the citronellal to PMD.

The result is Citriodiol®, which contains a minimum of 64% PMD and only a negligible amount of citronellal. The other naturally occurring minor components in the Eucalyptus citriodora oil remain largely unaffected by this process.

In this way Citrefine is effectively mimicking nature’s own ageing process.

 
 

Learn more about who we work with and how we can help you. Including the supply of Citriodiol, product formulations, regulatory support and technical support

 

Let's explore working together
GET IN TOUCH →

Read next
WHERE DO WE SOURCE THE OIL ↓

DSCF1769-01.jpeg

where do we source the oil?


The supply

Where do we source the oil?

where do we source the oil?


The supply

Where do we source the oil?

 

Citrefine International obtains eucalyptus citriodora oil from a handful of carefully selected sources


6_Harvested leaves ready for transport-01.jpeg

We work very closely with our oil producers and refiners to ensure a consistent supply of the best quality raw material for our process. We have several on-going projects to ensure supplies are maintained and the quality secure for the future, including having direct involvement with growers and plantations.

With regular visits to the plantations we are able to maintain and nurture our relationships with them, and monitor their social and environmental practices. This activity over recent years has allowed us to forge strong relationships for the future and maintain supplies of the highest quality of oil available in the world. 

 
 

Looking for more information about a specific subject?

 

Let's explore working together
GET IN TOUCH →

Return to the top of this page
BACK TO TOP ↑