Study 1.  

Carroll (2007).


A.  Test article  

  • 30% Citriodiol® pump spray product


B.  Species tested

The following mosquito species were present at the two geographic locations tested

  • Aedes
  • Anopheles
  • Culex


C.  Testing standards

This study was comprehensive in its testing method. It was field study (using two distinct geographic locations) and was conducted to US EPA standard OPPTS 810.3700.

  • It relied on 10 volunteers testing the product in two geographically distinct locations; hence 20 replicates in total.  
  • Application rate much lower than the industry standard rate of 1.0ml/600cm². 
  • It met all applicable ethical standards by ensuring subjects were adequately warned about the potential risks of the study, women at risk or pregnancy were excluded, and the privacy of the subjects was ensured (HSRB approved).


D.  Results

The 30% Citriodiol® spray formulation provided up to 8.25 hours of complete protection (CPT), a standard measuring 100% protection or repellency.

This result, which gave a median CPT of 4-6.2 hours was based on an application rate of the product that was 70% lower than industry standard.  In addition, the standard of complete protection required under OPPTS 810.3700 is arguably a more rigorous standard than required by some Member States in Europe under national laws insofar as it bases its conclusion on a standard of complete protection from landings with intent to bite (time of first confirmed landing with intent to bite) whereas the "percentage protection" standard requires the often less rigorous standard of a given percentage (less than 100%) of protection from actual bites. 

The US EPA determined this data supported a claim of“up to 6 hours protection from mosquitoes” based on this more conservative CPT standard. 



Study 2.  

Blackwell (2014)


A.  Test articles:

  • 30% Citriodiol® spray product(Mosi-guard Natural® Spray)
  • 20% IR3535 spray product(Jungle Formula for Sensitive Skin)
  • 15% DEET spray product (Coleman® Family Insect Repellent)
  • 32% Citriodiol® alternate non-spray product (Mosi-guard Natural® Roll-on)


B.  Species tested

  • Stegomyia (formerly Aedes)


C.  Testing standards

This study was an arm-in-cage laboratory biting assay.  The protocol was adapted fromUS EPA standard OPPTS 810.3700 and WHO/HTM/NTD/WHOPES/2009.4, in line with the latest TNsG on repellents (CA-Dec12-Doc.6.2.a-Final)

  • Three volunteers
  • Industry standard application rate of 1.0ml/600cm² (1g/600cm² for roll-on)
  • 50 unfed female mosquitoes
  • Three muslin-covered cages (30x30x30 cm)
  • Negative control


D.  Results

The 30% Citriodiol® spray formulation provided 360 minutes of complete protection (CPT), significantly greater than the CPT for the other spray products tested, and 70% repellency was maintained to 6 hours. 


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